Voters would need to present photo identification at the polls under a measure passed by the Missouri House.
House members voted 114-39 in favor of the bill Thursday. The vote fell along party lines.
The House also Thursday voted 116-40 for a proposed amendment to the Missouri Constitution to allow for such a requirement. Missourians would need to approve a change to the Constitution.
The amendment would be necessary because the state Supreme Court in 2006 ruled that a photo ID requirement wasn't narrowly tailored and was an undue burden on voters.
Republican supporters say photo identification would prevent possible fraud. Opponents, primarily Democrats, say it could disenfranchise poor and minority voters.
The measures now head to the Senate for approval, where similar legislation is pending.